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     od -- octal, decimal, hex, ASCII dump


     od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOosvXx] [-A base] [-j skip] [-N length] [-t type]
	[[+]offset[.][Bb]] [file ...]


     The od utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or stan-
     dard input if no files are specified, in a user specified format.

     The options are as follows:

     -A base	 Specify the input address base.  base may be one of d, o, x
		 or n, which specify decimal, octal, hexadecimal addresses or
		 no address, respectively.

     -a 	 Output named characters.  Equivalent to -t a.

     -B, -o	 Output octal shorts.  Equivalent to -t o2.

     -b 	 Output octal bytes.  Equivalent to -t o1.

     -c 	 Output C-style escaped characters.  Equivalent to -t c.

     -D 	 Output unsigned decimal ints.	Equivalent to -t u4.

     -e, -F	 Output double-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent
		 to -t fD.

     -f 	 Output single-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent
		 to -t fF.

     -H, -X	 Output hexadecimal ints.  Equivalent to -t x4.

     -h, -x	 Output hexadecimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t x2.

     -I, -L, -l  Output signed decimal longs.  Equivalent to -t dL.

     -i 	 Output signed decimal ints.  Equivalent to -t dI.

     -j skip	 Skip skip bytes of the combined input before dumping.	The
		 number may be followed by one of b, k or m which specify the
		 units of the number as blocks (512 bytes), kilobytes and
		 megabytes, respectively.

     -N length	 Dump at most length bytes of input.

     -O 	 Output octal ints.  Equivalent to -t o4.

     -s 	 Output signed decimal shorts.	Equivalent to -t d2.

     -t type	 Specify the output format.  type is a string containing one
		 or more of the following kinds of type specifiers:

		 a	 Named characters (ASCII).  Control characters are
			 displayed using the following names:

		 c	 Characters in the default character set.  Non-print-
			 ing characters are represented as 3-digit octal char-
			 acter codes, except the following characters, which
			 are represented as C escapes:

			 NUL		  \0
			 alert		  \a
			 backspace	  \b
			 newline	  \n
			 carriage-return  \r
			 tab		  \t
			 vertical tab	  \v

			 Multi-byte characters are displayed in the area cor-
			 responding to the first byte of the character.  The
			 remaining bytes are shown as `**'.

			 Signed decimal (d), octal (o), unsigned decimal (u)
			 or hexadecimal (x).  Followed by an optional size
			 specifier, which may be either C (char), S (short), I
			 (int), L (long), or a byte count as a decimal inte-

			 Floating-point number.  Followed by an optional size
			 specifier, which may be either F (float), D (double)
			 or L (long double).

     -v 	 Write all input data, instead of replacing lines of duplicate
		 values with a `*'.

     Multiple options that specify output format may be used; the output will
     contain one line for each format.

     If no output format is specified, -t oS is assumed.


     The LANG, LC_ALL and LC_CTYPE environment variables affect the execution
     of od as described in environ(7).


     The od utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.


     The traditional -s option to extract string constants is not supported;
     consider using strings(1) instead.


     hexdump(1), strings(1)


     The od utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'').


     An od command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 5.4			 July 11, 2004			   FreeBSD 5.4


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