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     window -- window environment


     window [-t] [-f] [-d] [-e escape-char] [-c command]


     The window utility implements a window environment on ASCII terminals.

     A window is a rectangular portion of the physical terminal screen associ-
     ated with a set of processes.  Its size and position can be changed by
     the user at any time.  Processes communicate with their window in the
     same way they normally interact with a terminal-through their standard
     input, output, and diagnostic file descriptors.  The window program han-
     dles the details of redirecting input and output to and from the windows.
     At any one time, only one window can receive input from the keyboard, but
     all windows can simultaneously send output to the display.

     When window starts up, the commands (see long commands below) contained
     in the file .windowrc in the user's home directory are executed.  If it
     does not exist, two equal sized windows spanning the terminal screen are
     created by default.

     The command line options are

     -t 	 Turn on terse mode (see terse command below).

     -f 	 Fast.	Don't perform any startup action.

     -d 	 Ignore .windowrc and create the two default windows instead.

     -e escape-char
		 Set the escape character to escape-char.  Escape-char can be
		 a single character, or in the form ^X where X is any charac-
		 ter, meaning control-X.

     -c command  Execute the string command as a long command (see below)
		 before doing anything else.

     Windows can overlap and are framed as necessary.  Each window is named by
     one of the digits ``1'' to ``9''.	This one-character identifier, as well
     as a user definable label string, are displayed with the window on the
     top edge of its frame.  A window can be designated to be in the
     foreground, in which case it will always be on top of all normal, non-
     foreground windows, and can be covered only by other foreground windows.
     A window need not be completely within the edges of the terminal screen.
     Thus a large window (possibly larger than the screen) may be positioned
     to show only a portion of its full size.

     Each window has a cursor and a set of control functions.  Most intelli-
     gent terminal operations such as line and character deletion and inser-
     tion are supported.  Display modes such as underlining and reverse video
     are available if they are supported by the terminal.  In addition, simi-
     lar to terminals with multiple pages of memory, each window has a text
     buffer which can have more lines than the window itself.

   Process Environment
     size and characteristics as well as information from the physical termi-
     nal, such as the existence of underline, reverse video, and other display
     modes, and the codes produced by the terminal's function keys, if any.
     In addition, the window size attributes of the pseudo-terminal are set to
     reflect the size of this window, and updated whenever it is changed by
     the user.	In particular, the editor vi(1) uses this information to
     redraw its display.

     During normal execution, window can be in one of two states: conversation
     mode and command mode.  In conversation mode, the terminal's real cursor
     is placed at the cursor position of a particular window--called the cur-
     rent window--and input from the keyboard is sent to the process in that
     window.  The current window is always on top of all other windows, except
     those in foreground.  In addition, it is set apart by highlighting its
     identifier and label in reverse video.

     Typing window's escape character (normally ^P) in conversation mode
     switches it into command mode.  In command mode, the top line of the ter-
     minal screen becomes the command prompt window, and window interprets
     input from the keyboard as commands to manipulate windows.

     There are two types of commands: short commands are usually one or two
     key strokes; long commands are strings either typed by the user in the
     command window (see the ``:'' command below), or read from a file (see
     source below).

   Short Commands
     Below, # represents one of the digits ``1'' to ``9'' corresponding to the
     windows 1 to 9.  ^X means control-X, where X is any character.  In par-
     ticular, ^^ is control-^.	Escape is the escape key, or ^[.

     #	     Select window # as the current window and return to conversation

     %#      Select window # but stay in command mode.

     ^^      Select the previous window and return to conversation mode.  This
	     is useful for toggling between two windows.

     escape  Return to conversation mode.

     ^P      Return to conversation mode and write ^P to the current window.
	     Thus, typing two ^P's in conversation mode sends one to the cur-
	     rent window.  If the window escape is changed to some other char-
	     acter, that character takes the place of ^P here.

     ?	     List a short summary of commands.

     ^L      Refresh the screen.

     q	     Exit window.  Confirmation is requested.

     ^Z      Suspend window.

     w	     Create a new window.  The user is prompted for the positions of
	     the upper left and lower right corners of the window.  The cursor
	     is placed on the screen and the keys ``h'', ``j'', ``k'', and
	     new window will be framed.  Typing escape at any point cancels
	     this command.

	     This window becomes the current window, and is given the first
	     available ID.  The default buffer size is used (see default_nline
	     command below).

	     Only fully visible windows can be created this way.

     c#      Close window #.  The process in the window is sent the hangup
	     signal (see kill(1)).  The csh(1) utility should handle this sig-
	     nal correctly and cause no problems.

     m#      Move window # to another location.  A box in the shape of the
	     window is drawn on the screen to indicate the new position of the
	     window, and the same keys as those for the w command are used to
	     position the box.	The window can be moved partially off-screen.

     M#      Move window # to its previous position.

     s#      Change the size of window #.  The user is prompted to enter the
	     new lower right corner of the window.  A box is drawn to indicate
	     the new window size.  The same keys used in w and m are used to
	     enter the position.

     S#      Change window # to its previous size.

     ^Y      Scroll the current window up by one line.

     ^E      Scroll the current window down by one line.

     ^U      Scroll the current window up by half the window size.

     ^D      Scroll the current window down by half the window size.

     ^B      Scroll the current window up by the full window size.

     ^F      Scroll the current window down by the full window size.

     h	     Move the cursor of the current window left by one column.

     j	     Move the cursor of the current window down by one line.

     k	     Move the cursor of the current window up by one line.

     l	     Move the cursor of the current window right by one column.

     y	     Yank.  The user is prompted to enter two points within the cur-
	     rent window.  Then the content of the current window between
	     those two points is saved in the yank buffer.

     p	     Put.  The content of the yank buffer is written to the current
	     window as input.

     ^S      Stop output in the current window.

     ^Q      Start output in the current window.

     There are two data types: string and number.  A string is a sequence of
     letters or digits beginning with a letter.  ``_'' and ``.'' are consid-
     ered letters.  Alternately, non-alphanumeric characters can be included
     in strings by quoting them in ``"'' or escaping them with ``\''.  In
     addition, the ``\'' sequences of C are supported, both inside and outside
     quotes (e.g., ``\n'' is a new line, ``\r'' a carriage return).  For exam-
     ple, these are legal strings: abcde01234, "&#$^*&#", ab"$#"cd, ab\$\#cd,

     A number is an integer value in one of three forms: a decimal number, an
     octal number preceded by ``0'', or a hexadecimal number preceded by
     ``0x'' or ``0X''.	The natural machine integer size is used (i.e., the
     signed integer type of the C compiler).  As in C, a non-zero number rep-
     resents a boolean true.

     The character ``#'' begins a comment which terminates at the end of the

     A statement is either a conditional or an expression.  Expression state-
     ments are terminated with a new line or ``;''.  To continue an expression
     on the next line, terminate the first line with ``\''.

   Conditional Statement
     The window utility has a single control structure: the fully bracketed if
     statement in the form

	   if <expr> then
	   elsif <expr> then

     The else and elsif parts are optional, and the latter can be repeated any
     number of times.  <Expr> must be numeric.

     Expressions in window are similar to those in the C language, with most C
     operators supported on numeric operands.  In addition, some are over-
     loaded to operate on strings.

     When an expression is used as a statement, its value is discarded after
     evaluation.  Therefore, only expressions with side effects (assignments
     and function calls) are useful as statements.

     Single valued (no arrays) variables are supported, of both numeric and
     string values.  Some variables are predefined.  They are listed below.

     The operators in order of increasing precedence:

     <expr1> = <expr2>
		 Assignment.  The variable of name <expr1>, which must be
		 string valued, is assigned the result of <expr2>.  Returns
     <expr1> || <expr2>
		 Logical or.  Numeric values only.  Short circuit evaluation
		 is supported (i.e., if <expr1> evaluates true, then <expr2>
		 is not evaluated).

     <expr1> && <expr2>
		 Logical and with short circuit evaluation.  Numeric values

     <expr1> | <expr2>
		 Bitwise or.  Numeric values only.

     <expr1> ^ <expr2>
		 Bitwise exclusive or.	Numeric values only.

     <expr1> & <expr2>
		 Bitwise and.  Numeric values only.

     <expr1> == <expr2>, <expr1> != <expr2>
		 Comparison (equal and not equal, respectively).  The boolean
		 result (either 1 or 0) of the comparison is returned.	The
		 operands can be numeric or string valued.  One string operand
		 forces the other to be converted to a string in necessary.

     <expr1> < <expr2>, <expr1> > <expr2>, <expr1> <= <expr2>,
		 Less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than
		 or equal to.  Both numeric and string values, with automatic
		 conversion as above.

     <expr1> << <expr2>, <expr1> >> <expr2>
		 If both operands are numbers, <expr1> is bit shifted left (or
		 right) by <expr2> bits.  If <expr1> is a string, then its
		 first (or last) <expr2> characters are returns (if <expr2> is
		 also a string, then its length is used in place of its

     <expr1> + <expr2>, <expr1> - <expr2>
		 Addition and subtraction on numbers.  For ``+'', if one argu-
		 ment is a string, then the other is converted to a string,
		 and the result is the concatenation of the two strings.

     <expr1> * <expr2>, <expr1> / <expr2>, <expr1> % <expr2>
		 Multiplication, division, modulo.  Numbers only.

     -<expr>, ~<expr>, !<expr>, $<expr>, $?<expr>
		 The first three are unary minus, bitwise complement and logi-
		 cal complement on numbers only.  The operator, ``$'', takes
		 <expr> and returns the value of the variable of that name.
		 If <expr> is numeric with value n and it appears within an
		 alias macro (see below), then it refers to the nth argument
		 of the alias invocation.  ``$?''  tests for the existence of
		 the variable <expr>, and returns 1 if it exists or 0 other-

		 Function call.  <Expr> must be a string that is the unique
		 prefix of the name of a builtin window function or the full
		 name of a user defined alias macro.  In the case of a builtin
		 fixes of the argument names.  The commas separating arguments
		 are used only to disambiguate, and can usually be omitted.

		 Only the first argument form is valid for user defined
		 aliases.  Aliases are defined using the alias builtin func-
		 tion (see below).  Arguments are accessed via a variant of
		 the variable mechanism (see ``$'' operator above).

		 Most functions return value, but some are used for side
		 effect only and so must be used as statements.  When a func-
		 tion or an alias is used as a statement, the parentheses sur-
		 rounding the argument list may be omitted.  Aliases return no

   Builtin Functions
     The arguments are listed by name in their natural order.  Optional argu-
     ments are in square brackets `[]'.  Arguments that have no names are in
     angle brackets `<>'.  An argument meant to be a boolean flag (often named
     flag) can be one of on, off, yes, no, true, or false, with obvious mean-
     ings, or it can be a numeric expression, in which case a non-zero value
     is true.

     alias([<string>], [<string-list>])
		 If no argument is given, all currently defined alias macros
		 are listed.  Otherwise, <string> is defined as an alias, with
		 expansion <string-list >>.  The previous definition of
		 <string>, if any, is returned.  Default for <string-list> is
		 no change.

		 Close the windows specified in <window-list>.	If
		 <window-list> is the word all, than all windows are closed.
		 No value is returned.

		 Set the window cursor to modes.  Modes is the bitwise or of
		 the mode bits defined as the variables m_ul (underline),
		 m_rev (reverse video), m_blk (blinking), and m_grp (graphics,
		 terminal dependent).  Return value is the previous modes.
		 Default is no change.	For example, cursor($m_rev$m_blk) sets
		 the window cursors to blinking reverse video.

		 Set the default buffer size to nline.	Initially, it is 48
		 lines.  Returns the old default buffer size.  Default is no
		 change.  Using a very large buffer can slow the program down

		 Set the default window shell program to <string-list>.
		 Returns the first string in the old shell setting.  Default
		 is no change.	Initially, the default shell is taken from the
		 environment variable SHELL.

		 Set the default value of the smooth argument to the command
		 window (see below).  The argument is a boolean flag (one of
		 on, off, yes, no, true, false, or a number, as described
		 Default is the current window.

		 Set the escape character to escape-char.  Returns the old
		 escape character as a one-character string.  Default is no
		 change.  Escapec can be a string of a single character, or in
		 the form -^X, meaning control-X.

     foreground([window], [flag])
		 Move window in or out of foreground.  Flag is a boolean
		 value.  The old foreground flag is returned.  Default for
		 window is the current window, default for flag is no change.

     label([window], [label])
		 Set the label of window to label.  Returns the old label as a
		 string.  Default for window is the current window, default
		 for label is no change.  To turn off a label, set it to an
		 empty string ("").

     list()	 No arguments.	List the identifiers and labels of all win-
		 dows.	No value is returned.

		 Make window the current window.  The previous current window
		 is returned.  Default is no change.

		 Read and execute the long commands in filename.  Returns -1
		 if the file cannot be read, 0 otherwise.

		 Set terse mode to flag.  In terse mode, the command window
		 stays hidden even in command mode, and errors are reported by
		 sounding the terminal's bell.	Flag can take on the same val-
		 ues as in foreground above.  Returns the old terse flag.
		 Default is no change.

		 Undefine alias.  Returns -1 if alias does not exist, 0 other-

		 Undefine variable.  Returns -1 if variable does not exist, 0

		 No arguments.	List all variables.  No value is returned.

     window([row], [column], [nrow], [ncol], [nline], [label], [pty], [frame],
		 [mapnl], [keepopen], [smooth], [shell]).
		 Open a window with upper left corner at row, column and size
		 nrow, ncol.  If nline is specified, then that many lines are
		 allocated for the text buffer.  Otherwise, the default buffer
		 size is used.	Default values for row, column, nrow, and ncol
		 are, respectively, the upper, left-most, lower, or right-most
		 extremes of the screen.  Label is the label string.  Frame,
		 pty, and mapnl are flag values interpreted in the same way as
		 the argument to foreground (see above); they mean, respec-
		 produce a more terminal-like behavior.  The default value of
		 smooth is set by the default_smooth command (see above).
		 Shell is a list of strings that will be used as the shell
		 program to place in the window (default is the program speci-
		 fied by default_shell, see above).  The created window's
		 identifier is returned as a number.

     write([window], [<string-list>])
		 Send the list of strings, <string-list>, to window, separated
		 by spaces but not terminated with a new line.	The strings
		 are actually given to the window as input.  No value is
		 returned.  Default is the current window.

   Predefined Variables
     These variables are for information only.	Redefining them does not
     affect the internal operation of window.

     baud   The baud rate as a number between 50 and 38400.

     modes  The display modes (reverse video, underline, blinking, graphics)
	    supported by the physical terminal.  The value of modes is the
	    bitwise or of some of the one bit values, m_blk, m_grp, m_rev, and
	    m_ul (see below).  These values are useful in setting the window
	    cursors' modes (see cursormodes above).

     m_blk  The blinking mode bit.

     m_grp  The graphics mode bit (not very useful).

     m_rev  The reverse video mode bit.

     m_ul   The underline mode bit.

     ncol   The number of columns on the physical screen.

     nrow   The number of rows on the physical screen.

     term   The terminal type.	The standard name, found in the second name
	    field of the terminal's TERMCAP entry, is used.


     The window utility utilizes these environment variables: HOME, SHELL,


     ~/.windowrc       startup command file.
     /dev/[pt]ty[pq]?  pseudo-terminal devices.


     The window command appeared in 4.3BSD.


     Should be self explanatory.

FreeBSD 5.4		       December 30, 1993		   FreeBSD 5.4


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